District at a Glance

    JAMUI was formed as a District on 21st February, 1991 as a result of its separation from Munger. It is located at a Longitude of 86º-13'E and the latitude of 24º-55'N.

Boundry
North South East West
Munger and Lakhisarai District Giridih District of Jharkhand Deoghar and Banka District Nawada District

Area
    JAMUI occupies a total of 3,122.80 sq. kms.

Population
    As per 2001 Census statistics, total population of Jamui is 13,98,796 out of which the male population is 7,29,138 and the female population is 6,69,658.

Density
    The population density of the district is 401.

Literacy
    The average literacy figures for Jamui stands at 42.74% (Male - 52.91%, Female - 26.79%).

Administrative Units
 1 No. of Police District  1
 2 No. of Sub-Divisions  1
 3 No of Police Subdivisions  2
 4 No. of Blocks  10
 5 No. of Circles  10
 6 No. of Police Stations  12
 7 No. of Panchayats  153
 8 No. of Villages  1528

Administrative Division
    At present the district is the part of Munger Commissionery having one subdivision and 10 revenue block with 153 panchayat & village Administrative structure of the district is as below: -
Sub division Block No. Of Panchayat No. Of Village
 Jamui Jamui 12 081
  Khaira 22 120
  Sikandra 14 068
  I. Aliganj 13 069
  Laxmipur 13 082
  Gidhaur 08 020
  Barahat 09 043
  Sono 19 250
  Chakai 23 600
  Jhajha 20 197
  Total 153 1530
    The district Comprise of four assembly constituency i.e. Jamui, Sikandra, Jhajha Chakai. The entire four Assembly constituency are the part of Jamui (SC) Parliamentary Constancy.
The district has been constituted with three-stage panchayati raj system. The district board is in functional stage, which consists 20 members. Urban population of the district centered in Jamui & Jhajha, which are Municipal and notified areas respectively.

District Profile
    Jamui is one of the famous district of Bihar, which has a glorious past. Historical existence of Jamui has been observed from the Period of Mahabharta war. Archaeological and historical evidence shows its close association with Jain tradition for a long past to the present time. History of Bihar will remain incomplete without the history of Jamui.
There are mainly two hypotheses which have been mentioned by historians regarding the origin of the name of the district Jamui. The first hypothesis said that the name of Jamui derived from "Jambhiya Gram" or "Jribhikgram" village, which has the place of attaining 'Omniscience' (Kevalaygnan) of Vardhaman Mahavir and according to another hypothesis the name Jamui is originated from Jambuwani.

PHYSIOGRAPHICAL DIVISION
    Most of the part of the district has hilly topography. Western portion of Jamui like Sikandra Jamui a little part of Khaira has plain area. Sikandra block is situated in alluvial zone. A sizeable part of the district comprise plains which are paddy-growing lands. Sourthern part of the district is covered with hills and forest characteristically reminiscent of the Chhotanagpur plateau in physical features.Hills of the district are considered to be the out –laying extension of Vindhya Range. Southwest part of the district has another block of hills known as Gidheswar Pahar.

RIVER & DRAINAGE SYSTEM
    Kuil and Ulai River are the chief rivers of the district. Beside these rivers, tributaries and sub tributaries, rainy rivers flow in scattered way.A famous Nakti Dam situated in the southern hilly terrain of the district. Both Dam are declared as Bird Sanctuary.

CLIMATE
    The climate of Jamui can be described as transition between the dry and moderately extreme climate of the northern Bharat and warm and humid climate of Bengal Basin. Like the rest of Bihar, the various seasons in the district can be divided as:-
1 Winter : November To February
2 Summer : March To May
3 Monsoon : June To September
4 Autumn : October To November

TEMPERATURE
    Like another part of Bihar temperature changes from season to season. However the minimum temperature in the district range between 300 to 50 Celsius in winter season whereas the maximum temperature ranges between 380 to 420Celsius in summer season.

RAINFALL
    The monsoon usually breaks in the second half of June and lasts till September. The average rainfall in the district is approximately 1000 mm. The average maximum rainfall is usually recorded in August. Chakai, Sono and Jhajha get rainfall more than the district average.

SOIL
    Jamui has a typical topography. The soil pattern of the district differs widely due to topography of the region. Important soil are sandy soils and alluvial soil of heavy texture having natural or alkaline reaction. Jhajha, Khaira, Sono, Chakai, Laxmipur block contain forest soil. A sizeable part of the plain of northern side of the district lies in the Basin of Kiul River and its tributaries.

LAND USE PATTERN
    As above-mentioned Jamui has variable nature of topography, according to 1981 only 58.49% area is cultivable. Following table shows total area cultivable area and growing main staple food in the district:-
TABLE BLOCK WISE LAND USE PATTERN
Sl. No. Block Total Area % Of Cult. Area Main Staple Food
1 Jamui 14208.26 83.33 Rice, Wheat
2 Laxmipur      
3 Barahat 45279.86 52.96 Rice, Wheat
4 Gidhour      
5 Khaira 42070.90 47.78 Rice, Wheat
6 Sikandra 34211.28 71.62 Rice, Wheat
7 I. Aliganj      
8 Jhajha 39616.89 55.49 Rice, Wheat
9 Sono 36147.75 61.84 Rice, Maize
10 Chakai 72659.83 40.43 Rice, Maize
  TOTAL 384194.83 58.49  
Source: - District Census Hand Book 1981
    Above table shows the poor cultivable situation of Khaira and Chakai Blocks where more than 50% of the land are not useful for cultivation. As far as the land use pattern is concerned Rice and Wheat are the prominent crops. A little volume of Maize, Onion is also grown. Katahal and Mahua are being producted in southern part of the district.

IRRIGATION FACILITIES
    However, the district has no big irrigation project. Small irrigation dam and natural Water reservoir like Garhi Dam and Naki Dam are the main source of irrigation Water of Kiul, Ulai, Anjan and Ajay rivers and other tributaries are also used for irrigation. Tube wells are also being used for irrigation. Open boring surface percolation wells and tube wells are also being used for irrigation by peasants. Kukurjhap Dam on Anjan River, lower Kiul Jalasaya scheme, and Gidheshwar payeen are some of another important irrigation project of the district.

FLOURA & FAUNA
    Southern blocks of the district have forest area where variegated vegetation found. Sal is Most important tree, Sakhua Kathal, Khair are the common tree of southern area of the district. Beside Pipal, Gular, Banyan, Mango are seen commonly spread almost all over the district.Heyna & wild cats are common in hilly areas of the district. Small wild creatures are also found in the forest.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
    The rearing of milch animal has been a traditional occupation in this area. Cattle like Cows, Bulls, Bullock, Sheep, Goat, pig etc has great importance in farmer’s life. Voluminous size of population is engaged in rearing of above-mentioned cattle for their economical needs.

MINES & MINERALS
    Jamui is one of the important district in Bihar where different types of ores & Minerals are found. The hills of Laxmipur and Khaira are comprised of archaenschists including the iron ore. In Laxmipur, Sono and Chakai the chief formation in gneiss basement complex. Mica mines lie in the portion of adjoining Hazaribag district. Beside these there is possibility of availability of lime stone, China clay, Magnese, Graphic Pegmite Termoline quartz etc. in the southern hills of the district. Ore of gold has been observed in Sono Block. Hilly areas of Jamui are also acquainted with valuable stone like Marble, Topaz, and American diamond, Sfatik, Manic etc. coals are found in hilly area of Barhat block.

INDUSTRIALISATION
    There is no big industry. Traditional small-scale industries like making utensil iron gilla gates etc. has been flourishing industry in township area of the district. The manufacturing of 'Bidi' is flourishing industry in Jhajha & Gidhour.

TRASPORT & COMMUNICATION
    Jamui is well connected to other parts of Bihar & Jharkhand through railway as well as Road. North Eastern railway covers entire part of the district Jhajha is an important railway terminal of Eastern railway having Loco Shade. Good road communication is there to the district from Munger Bhagalpur, Nawada, and Giridih & Deoghar.

TRADE & COMMERCE
    Jamui is being entirely an agricultural district, its exports trade consists mainly of agricultural products such as various food grains pulses Jackfruit, Mahua etc. Jamui is one of the prominent manufacturers of Bidi & cement co lour export these commodities all over Barhat.Usually Coal, Iron & Steel, Salt sugar cement cotton, woolen textiles, kerosene oil spices etc are being important in the district.

SOCIAL & CLUTRUAL EVENT
    The District of Jamui has a rich cultural heritage & tradition, Dushara, Holi, Rakshabandhan, Chat, Makarshankranti, Nagpanchami, Mahashivratri are the main religious festival of Hindus. Beside this festival tribal population of the district celebrate Sarhul a Sohrai. Karma festival is an important festival of the district celebrated by tribal & non-tribal Hindu Both. Tradition of cow’s worship & Goshala worship on Gopastami in the month of Kartik is popular among the people of the district.

The festivals like Id, Muhrrum, & Christmas are related with minority Muslim & Christian respectively. On the occasion of Mahashivratri a great fair is organized at Mahadeo Simariya Shivmandir. A distinct fair organized on the occasion of Kali puja at Mallehpur & a big get-together celebrates the fair and pays their offerings before the Goddes KALI.Occasion of Makar Sankaranti celibrated \at Patneshwar & Gidhour is also matter of interest. A noticeable fair organized by Tribal population of the district at "Jhonpa" in Laxmipur.Ures & Milad are also celebrated at Amarath and Jamui.

Musical Tradition
    The musical tradition of the district was rich in the past and is getting enriched in present times also. The name of Sri Rudranarayan Singh, retd. headmaster deserves to be included in those personalities who have been responsible for enriching the cultural life of the common people of Jamui, by spreading the cultural values by means of classical music. In the past two the decades Sri Bajrang Lal Gupta has worked as an A.I.R. artist of light classical music. Sri Jyotrindra Kumar, Dr. Anjubala, Smt.Sujata Kumari, Kumar Amitabh, Sri Chandan Gupta, Sri Shailesh Kumar, Smt. Abha Singh, Sri Anil Pathak etc. are making a significant contribution towards the upliftment of music in Jamui district.

Literature
    Jamui has been a fertile ground for man of literature and poets . Jamui has a rich literary lineage. Dr.Awadh Kishore Sinha, Dr.Shyamanand Prasad have held the flag of literature high. This has been ably kept up and continued by a Galaxy of young poets and writers such as Prof Dr. Jagrup Prasad, Prof. Dr. Sunil Yadav, Prof. Sukhdev Thakur, Prof. Prabhat Sarsij, Dr. Giridhar Acharya, Prof. Brajnandan Modi. Jamui has been glorified by versatile achievements of the literarary effort of Pt. Jagannath Pd.Chaturvedi. Begining with his Majesty Rameshwar Pd. Singh up to Kumar Ranbir Singh comprises a long list of ancient poet of the district, who wrote in Braj Bhasha. The contributions of more reccent poets like Braj Vallabh Chaturbedi, Smt. Kishori, Late Kiran Ji, Tripurari Singh Matwala, Deverendra Malaypuri, Prabhat Sarsij, Vinay Asham, Dr. Mashum Ahmad, Dr. S . N. Jha, Dr. Lalit Kumar Singh, Dr. U. P. Singh, etc. have brought laurels to the district of Jamui. Pt. Jagannath Pandey holds the pride of place in the field of sanskrit literature and astrology . Mr. Binay Kumar, Journlist, also hold the pride of place who covered the news of 7th world Hindi conference held at Surinam as only Journalist from Bihar and Jharkhand.

Sports
    Jamui District is progressing very fast in the field of sports and games. The organizations like Jamui District Amateur Athletics Association, District Football Association, District Women Football Association, District Cricket Association, District Kabaddi Association etc. are actively participating in promotion of games and sports. The existence of such large number of associations and organizations concerned with such a large variety of sports & games points to the vitality, interest & involvement of the local people in these fields. The leadership provided by Lt. Parasnath Bariyar, Tapeshwar Pd. Bariyar, Hoda Sahed, Kamta Pd. Singh, Nathu Ram and Kedar Pd. Singh in field of sports and games had raised the position of Jamui to the State level as early as two or three decades ago.

Kabaddi & Gulli danda is popular indigenous games of the district. Football and Cricket are also played everywhere .Men & Women football tournament & cricket tournament is being organized at district level annually. A tournament of chess has to be organized annually by district sports authority. 

Recently 1st District Level Athletics Meet, 11th State Level President Cup Football Tournament, Late Shukra Das Cricket Tournament has been organized successfully. 

There are two stadiums namely Sri Krishna Singh Stadium, Jamui & Kumar Surendra Pratap Singh Stadium, Giddhour and one Special Area Game Centre at Giddhour in the district.

DEMOGRAPHIC PATTERN
    Comparative demographic feature between 1991 to 2001 of the district is as follows:
Year Male Female Total Decadal Growth Area Density Of Population in Sq. Kms
1991 551869 495950 1050829 21.90 3098.27 339
2001 729138 669658 1398796 32.90 3098.27 459
Source: Census 1991, 2001.
    Population data of census 2001, District has total population of 13,98,796. Out of which 729138 (52.13%) are male and 669658 (47.87%) are female. Most of the parts of population reside in rural areas. Out of total population 1398996 persons (92.61%) are of rural population and 103244 persons (7.39%) are part of urban population. The district possesses 30th rank in the population size of the state.

SCHEDULE CASTE & SCHEDULE TRIBES POPULATION
    District of Jamui has a sizeable population of Schedule Tribe. However status of SC, ST population according to census 2001 is yet not published. According to 1991 census abstract 22.42% of the population of the district is SC, ST Population. Out of 22.42% of SC, ST population 17.35% population is SC population and rest 5.07% population is ST population.

Following table indicates the share of SC & ST among total population is according to 1991 census.
TABLE BLOCK WISE SC & ST POPULATION
Sl. No. Block SC% ST%
1 Jamui 17.30 0.04
2 Khaira 17.63 2.86
3 I. Aliganj 18.46 0.34
4 Sikandra 21.41 0.58
5 Laxmipur 21.57 10.87
6 Barahat 24.37 4.99
7 Gidhaur 19.69 0.86
8 Jhajha 11.67 5.09
9 Sono 14.11 3.31
10 Chakai 17.51 17.77
Source: Primary Census Abstract 1991 ( * blocks were undivided )

DECADAL GROWTH RATE
    Decadal growth of population in 1991 was 21.9%. Which went in 2001 up to 32.90%. But these figures show that the Annual growth rate is 2.89%, which is very high.

SEX RATIO
    Sex ratio is a kind of social parameter of the society indicates balance between male & female in the society. As per the provisional data of census 2001, there are 917 women on each 1000 Male. Although. This rate varies in the population of 0-6 age group children i.e. 964. Rank of the district in 17th in the state.

POPULATION DENSITY
    Population density of the district is much lower than the average population density of the state, in comparison to state population density i.e. 880 per sq km. Only 451 persons reside in per sq km in the district. The district has 36th rank in the state.

PLACES OF INTEREST
    Jamui is a witness to several historical changes. There are many places in the district having historical and religious importance.

Jamui
    It is the district headquarters famous for Panchamandir & Kalimandir. Every Tuesday an animal fair or hat of cattle organized in Panchamandir. There is an historical museum namely Chandra Shekhar Singh Sangrahalaya is situated near the Ashok town hall.

Malaypur
    It is famous for its KaliMandir & Patneshswarf pahar situated on the banks of Kiul River. A temple of shiva is erected on the hill have greal religious importance.

Kakan
    The village is situated 12 km. away from the district headquarter. Associated with 9th tirthanker of Jain Dharm Kevalays Suvidhinath. Lacs of Jain devotee come here every year to offer their worship in the temple of suvidinath.

Amarath
    The village is famous for mazar of a Muslim saint.

Indpe
    It is said that the village was the capital of the king Indradyumn. Remains of palace are still in existence here.

Simultalla
    Simultala is a beautiful natural place, is best for summer season. Swami Vivekananda has been associated with this place. "Taramath" is a famous temple of Simultala.

Jhumraj Asthan
    It is famous for the temple of Baba Jhumraj. People come here after fulfillment of their wishes and offer goats before the God.

Patsanda
    The village is commonly known as Gidhour due to its being the seat of the Rajas of Gidhour. The name Gidhour is ascribed to a legend recounting it as the spot where Rawana killed the vulture (gidh) Jatayu. A fair is held in the village on the occasion of Durga Puja, which attracts the number of persons.

Gidheswar
    It is a hill situated about 13 kms south of Jamui. According to the local legend. The epic fight between the vulture Jatayu and the demon Ravana, while the latter was abducting Sita, took place here. There is a temple of lord Shiva, which draws big crowds on the occasion of Shivaratri and Maghi Purnima. Village Barbiagh, the headquarter of Khaira block, is situated at the foothills.

KSHATRIYA KUND GRAM
    The village is associated with Bhagwan Mahavira. A beautiful temple of Jain Dharm is erected here. A sect of Jain's believed it the birthplace of Bhagwan Mahavira. Thousands of the pilgrim travel here on pilgrimage to satisfy their faith.

Kumar
    It is famous village of this area where the temple of 'Netula Devi' is situated. Place in famous for offering of goats before the Goddess.

Lachuar
    The village lies in the south–western portion of Sikandra block and is associated with lord Mahavira, the 24 th Jain Tirthkar. Jain pilgrims congregate at the place on the occasion of Mahavir Jayanti.

Mahadeo Simaria
    The village is situated about 10 kms, east of Sikandra. It has temple of Lord Shiva and consort Paravati, which draws thousands of devotees on the occasion of Shiva Vivah in the month of phalgun (February to march) every year.

Sikandra
    The village, which is the headquarters of the block bearing the same name, is noted for the Dargah of Muslim saint, shah Muzaffer who is said to have subdued a demon.